Raised Bed Vegetable Garden

I’m running way behind on Garden Tribe’s 21-Day Veggie Garden Boot Camp, so I’ll try to catch up the next few days.

Day 8 topic is Raised Beds–a subject dear to my heart, because I think you can make a garden look really stunning by adding different levels.

Of course, beauty is not necessarily the point for Garden Tribe. Let’s just stick to the basics, “Just the facts ma’am, just the facts”.

The GT lesson has an excellent summary, so I’ll let them tell it, and I’ll just add my two-bits: and here’s a great little site for raised beds:

  1. Why do you want a raised bed?
    1. You have no ground space or your only available ground space is inappropriate for vegetables.
    2. Your need the physical convenience of raised bed.
    3. You want to control the soil better
    4. You like the look.
  2. What is underneath?
    1. Impervious concrete/asphalt/other. Walls of raised bed need to be taller than if located over soil; needs to have a bottom with landscape cloth and good drainage.
    2. Grass/turf/weeds that you’re going to cover and smother. In my experience it took at least a year for the plant material to decompose, and in the meantime was full of wireworm that got into the potatoes. 
    3. Soil that’s difficult to till/grow in/doesn’t drain well. Covering that over with lots of inches of largely organic mixture will begin the process of amending that soil, so it’s a very good thing.
    4. Reasonably good growing soil, just not high enough. So you’re going to make it higher.
  3. How high to the raised beds need to be? If you look at the link above to Easrtheasy.com you’ll see how deep the roots grow for various vegetables.
    1. You’re growing plants with shallow roots, (most greens and cabbage/broccoli veg)
    2. You’re growing plants with deep roots (everything else)
    3. Even tho’ the roots prefer to grow that deep, doesn’t mean the have to grow that deep. Just remember that, depending on what’s underneath the raised bed, you may be responsible for the entire reservoir of nutrients, water and growing medium (see container growing Day 7).
      5 Gallon cloth containers. these dry out FAST.

      5 Gallon cloth containers. These dry out FAST.

      These 5 gallon containers (allegedly a tomato plant needs to be in at least 5 gal pot) are only about 12″ tall. I did get tomatoes last year, but not as many as I should have.

    4. So taller is better. Besides that, you’re going to be growing different things in different place in years to come (I’m sure more of that to come in future GT days), so you may not need too much depth this year for lettuce, but next year you may be growing squash or parsnips or carrots in that spot.

      I have only shallow growers in these 8" high beds, located over

      I have only shallow growers in these 8″ high beds, located over grass. The potatoes can be mounded up, hence not needing too much height, but this was the year I got wireworms in the potatoes. I’ve been meaning to add another 8″ section on top…

Stay tuned for next lesson–SOIL. (Don’t call it “dirt” in the presence of garden lovers!)

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New Designs

New Designs

These designs haven’t been completely installed yet, so I don’t have “gardens” to show you.  But here’s a starter to “whet your appetite”.

Forest ave

Click on the image to enlarge.

This is a new site, corner, traditional looking house, black and charcoal grey, almost symmetrical. It’s on a slope, with a retaining wall about 50″ high across the back (top of the picture). I decided on a raised bed design, which is what the “W’s” are.

Blog pic

Click on the image to enlarge.

This is a SketchUp model of the raised beds. Poured in place concrete with benches built-in.

Next is a simple square backyard that the clients wanted to keep fairly square-looking, mainly turf, leaving room to install a lap pool next year.

Philips ave

Click to enlarge.

 

I’m getting a bit better at colour rendering:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

It’s been difficult to discipline myself to get my projects completed earlier than later. So I end up taking pictures of the coloured design instead of getting it scanned before presenting it to the client. raynes arbour

 

SketchUp model of a little arbour/fence combination for the back. And Layout has these cool style options. In this case pastels.

So that’s it for the moment–it’s taken me all evening to figure out how to convert these pdf’s to jpg’s. More to come–stay tuned.

Comments? Questions?

 

A Primer On Soil Characteristics–Part 1

What’s your soil like?

Here are some of the possibilities:

Clay-ish: rich in nutrients, but very fine particles, so it clumps together so much that there’s no air spaces between particles. Doesn’t drain very well.

Sandy-ish: almost no nutrients, but very large particles, so drains very well. So well in fact it’s hard to keep plants hydrated.

Loamy-ish: this is your preferred quality, a combination of both clay and sand, so enough fine particles to hold onto water, and enough course particles to let it go.

Image

Notice the happy little worm in the middle of the pic enjoying the combination of loam and organic matter.

(All pictures are enlargeable by clicking on them.)

I’ve posted two short videos here to demonstrate nice loamy soil that sticks together weakly, and slightly too sandy soil that I bought as garden soil amendment.

Then there’s organic matter.

Organic matter bulks up soil making it “fluffy”. It is also what attracts earthworms and microorganisms, both of which do the real work of making soil healthy. Earthworms eat small portions of food and plant material, leaving behind “castings”–earthworm poo, aka “black gold” (not to be confused with “black gold–Texas Tea”). And bacteria and fungi are able to take molecules of nitrogen that are unavailable to plants and convert it to ammonium and nitrate that is available to plants.

Optimal soil is loamy and rich in organic matter. But really, we have what we have, and trying to change it can be an exercise in major frustration!

Wendy tells me she has clay soil.

Her backyard is flat, at the bottom of a hill, and in the winter the turf is VERY soggy. In the summer it’s so dry it’s like straw; she figures that because there isn’t enough depth of topsoil on top of the clay so it’s difficult for the grass to put down deep roots.

Really sounds like she’s got it right. Unless you’ve got at least 6″ of topsoil, preferably 8″ of topsoil, grass will not do well. There just isn’t enough depth for a reservoir of moisture and nutrients deeper than the roots, so they don’t reach downward. And if underneath that not-quite-deep-enough layer of topsoil is predominately clay, the clay creates a barrier underneath the layer of topsoil allowing a pool of water to collect when it’s wet. Roots of plants that aren’t really “bog-tolerant” will either rot, or just stay shallow. When the rains stop the pool of water eventually dries out, but the grass roots are still petty shallow and suffer from the relative drought. Even if you water the lawn regularly, there’s still that clay barrier just a few inches away preventing proper drainage.

Wendy thought she would like to  dig it all out, put a better layer of topsoil, and seed a new lawn.

What do you think? What would you advise Wendy to do?

For those who are interested, here’s an excellent short article on managing turf on clay soils.

There seems to be no one solution to improving the site. If you scrape and replace, you’ve still got the layer of clay underneath, and sooner or later end up with the same results. If you regularly add layers of organic matter on top, eventually the worms will do a great job of incorporating the OM with the clay without the damage that rototilling would do. Do you want to work on this project for 5 years or so? (I would.) If you already have large shrubs or trees, they have adapted to the current level of the ground, and their superficial roots would surely not appreciate several inches of material on their heads, effectively suffocating them. So if you do choose the “top dressing” option, keep those layers less than about 2-3″.

Now here’s a couple other options, and both involve abandoning any attempt to have a grassy lawn:

1. Substitute your grass turf with another lawn alternative.

Image

Thanks to A Small Green Space for her picture of a clover lawn.

Dutch White Clover will grow from seed on your clay patch, and if you already have grass “growing” there, the clover will happily coexist. If the site is bare, sow a lot of clover.

Sedges are another option, such as Carex “Hime Kawasuga” or C. pennsylvanica, short growing, underground spreading, infrequently mow-able clumping grasses.

I’ll do another post exclusively on lawn alternatives, so stay tuned…

2. Raised beds. Instead of trying to manage the whole yard, build several raised beds with pathways in between. These can be your typical 2×8″ boards filled with compost and soil, or something a lot more attractive and creative-looking like dry-stack stones in less rectangular shapes.

Image

Dry-stack bricks, not dry-stack rocks, but still very cool.

This has been an overly long post, so I’ll stop here and save the rest for a future post.

Do you have soil that is less than Ideal? In fact, how do I even know if it is less than ideal, or if it’s my less-than-optimal technique that’s responsible for under-performing plants?

Leave a comment, share this to your favourite social network site, ask questions. You don’t need to suffer with a garden space that doesn’t meet your needs. Let’s get things working better!